Article

The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID-19 on domestic violence

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

COVID‐19 (the new strain of coronavirus) has been declared a global pandemic. Measures announced over recent weeks to tackle it have seen people’s day‐to‐day life drastically altered. These changes are essential to beat coronavirus and protect health systems (UK Home Office 2020). However, there are unintended, negative consequences. As the virus continues to spread across the world, it brings with it multiple new stresses, including physical and psychological health risks, isolation and loneliness, the closure of many schools and businesses, economic vulnerability and job losses. Through all of that, children (and their mothers) are particularly vulnerable (End Violence against Children, 2020) to the risk of domestic violence. Domestic violence refers to a range of violations that happen within a domestic space. It is a broad term that encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of abuse that is perpetrated by a current or ex‐partner.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

Request the article directly
from the authors on ResearchGate.

... child abuse, elder abuse, pet abuse, femicide, cyberviolence, stalking, and financial abuse) [8][9][10]. Besides, a current proliferation of gun and ammunition sales as families brace for COVID-19-related uncertainties have led to worrying fears of increased femicide (the intentional murder of female partners) since lockdown mandates were established [2,3]. Newer forms of partner abuse have also emerged, including reports of violent abusers threatening to infect a partner or their children in the 顺心彩票 with the coronavirus. ...
... Current social distancing and stay-at-顺心彩票 mandates will also amplify pre-existing depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation [12,15,16], panic disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder [17], as well as other mental and psychosomatic distress reactions (eg, insomnia, hyperarousal, avoidance, numbing, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and personality disorders) [18]. Within communities, epidemiologic evidence shows an intensification (ie, increased prevalence and severity) of other forms of gender-based violence including rape, sex trafficking, female genital mutilation or cutting, and early or child marriages during and immediately after catastrophic events of this magnitude [2,3,9,[19][20][21][22]. The usual support networks for survivors have been compromised, as DV service providers contend with new and extraordinary challenges related to this pandemic. ...
... In addition, stay-at-顺心彩票 directives will facilitate the interception and strict round-the-clock surveillance of social media and mobile devices by abusers. This will further limit known and free avenues for help-seeking and abuse disclosure [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Before COVID-19, 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-顺心彩票 mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current domestic violence mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-顺心彩票 advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-related domestic violence, and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.
... Global reports suggest a much higher incidence of domestic violence during the early peak phase of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as compared to previous years [1,2]. Some contributing factors known to increase the prevalence of domestic violence include social isolation, economic stressors, boredom, lack of control, fear, and lack of access to support measures [3,4]. ...
... The compounding factors related to quarantine conditions can be accompanied by psychological stressors such as depression, alcohol abuse, and post-traumatic stress symptoms [1]. A rapid increase in domestic violence has developed across the globe, with some countries reporting a doubling or tripling in rates of occurrence [1,2]. The lockdown scenario may increase the frequency or severity of existing domestic violence situations, particularly among first-time abusers. ...
... Rates of people committing domestic abuse for the first time during the lockdown are as high as 23% [5]. Additionally, several countries have reported massive increases in demand for help and support via phone lines, internet searches, and refugee websites [1,2,4]. Globally, the mental health effects of COVID-19 have resulted in profound increases in domestic violence and suicide; however, little is known regarding the impact of the pandemic among rural populations [6]. ...
... child abuse, elder abuse, pet abuse, femicide, cyberviolence, stalking, and financial abuse) [8][9][10]. Besides, a current proliferation of gun and ammunition sales as families brace for COVID-19-related uncertainties have led to worrying fears of increased femicide (the intentional murder of female partners) since lockdown mandates were established [2,3]. Newer forms of partner abuse have also emerged, including reports of violent abusers threatening to infect a partner or their children in the 顺心彩票 with the coronavirus. ...
... Current social distancing and stay-at-顺心彩票 mandates will also amplify pre-existing depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation [12,15,16], panic disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder [17], as well as other mental and psychosomatic distress reactions (eg, insomnia, hyperarousal, avoidance, numbing, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and personality disorders) [18]. Within communities, epidemiologic evidence shows an intensification (ie, increased prevalence and severity) of other forms of gender-based violence including rape, sex trafficking, female genital mutilation or cutting, and early or child marriages during and immediately after catastrophic events of this magnitude [2,3,9,[19][20][21][22]. The usual support networks for survivors have been compromised, as DV service providers contend with new and extraordinary challenges related to this pandemic. ...
... In addition, stay-at-顺心彩票 directives will facilitate the interception and strict round-the-clock surveillance of social media and mobile devices by abusers. This will further limit known and free avenues for help-seeking and abuse disclosure [2]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
UNSTRUCTURED Before COVID-19, 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as response and mitigation strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-顺心彩票 mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource that is increasingly being delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current domestic violence mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-顺心彩票 advisories. Examples of technology-based solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-related domestic violence, and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.
... Social distancing, selfisolation, loss of freedom, uncertainty, school and business closings, economic vulnerability and job loss have been some results of the lockdown. [1][2][3] It is recognized that large-scale disasters, whether traumatic (mass shootings), natural (hurricanes), or environmental (ocean oil spills), are often associated with higher levels of mental disorders (such as depression, substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder), domestic violence, and child abuse. 2 People worldwide have been told by authorities to stay 顺心彩票 to reduce the transmission of coronavirus, and social isolation and domestic quarantine can deepen relationships between family members, intensifying intimacy, affective exchanges, personal ties and previous behaviors, thus becoming a period of emotional growth for all involved. On the other hand, it is well-known that most violence against women is perpetrated by family members, and in times of crisis and during epidemics, the number of cases tends to increase. ...
... The situational stress, threat of unemployment, reduced income, perpetrator-imposed restrictions (such as continuous control of social media, Internet access, and mobile phones), as well as substance abuse (especially alcohol), limited resources and less social support for victims could all contribute to an increased risk of domestic violence and femicide. 1,[4][5][6] Scientific studies and the news media have reported that domestic violence is a real risk in this new context, especially for wives, mothers, children, pets and older adults. 1,4,5 On March 28, 2020 an article in The Guardian claimed that domestic violence cases had increased 40% to 50% in Brazil. ...
... Police reports and helpline calls due to domestic violence have increased in Argentina, Canada, China, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and the USA. 1,[4][5][6] The mass release of prisoners to reduce the risk of transmission is another worry. If such were to happen, the risk for victims and households would increase, given that violent offenders, including domestic violence perpetrators, would be among the released. ...
... Some subtle variation in the timing of the implementation of these measures occurred between States/Territories with State Governments/Territory officials also imposing additional restrictions in response to State/Territory-specific data. For example, some states introduced social distancing measures in schools from 15 March 2020, preventing students and staff from congregating in large numbers with several university graduations, conferences, events, classes and student organized events also canceled 6 . ...
... We conclude this section by stating that the PO-PBP models only the impact of COVID-19 with respect to the numbers of infections -it does not model other impacts on society (negative or positive) of policy control measures, as it is recognized that restrictions on gatherings affect people's lives in different ways. A positive example is reduced air pollution due to reduced travel [9], while a negative example is increased risk of harms like domestic violence [6]. As yet there is no single model which incorporates all of these factors. ...
Preprint
The novel Corona Virus COVID-19 arrived on Australian shores around 25 January 2020. This paper presents a novel method of dynamically modeling and forecasting the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia with a high degree of accuracy and in a timely manner using limited data; a valuable resource that can be used to guide government decision-making on societal restrictions on a daily and/or weekly basis. The "partially-observable stochastic process" used in this study predicts not only the future actual values with extremely low error, but also the percentage of unobserved COVID-19 cases in the population. The model can further assist policy makers to assess the effectiveness of several possible alternative scenarios in their decision-making processes.
... Journalists studying pandemics have noted that with imposition of stay-at-顺心彩票 orders, a surge in interpersonal violence (IPV) against women and children is common, a trend that is consistent wordwide. 41 APRNs must remain aware of this problem, include IPV assessment of all patients seeking care, 41 and provide referrals and supportive care when warranted. ...
... Journalists studying pandemics have noted that with imposition of stay-at-顺心彩票 orders, a surge in interpersonal violence (IPV) against women and children is common, a trend that is consistent wordwide. 41 APRNs must remain aware of this problem, include IPV assessment of all patients seeking care, 41 and provide referrals and supportive care when warranted. ...
Article
COVID-19 emerged in 2019 and rapidly became a global pandemic infecting millions, killing hundreds of thousands. The disease altered the practices of hospitals, clinics, and patients. These changes have implications for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs). APRNs must remain current on best practices for treatment and diagnosis of COVID-19 while being cognizant of changes to their scope of practice. As the pandemic continues, APRNs will remain on the front lines treating COVID-19 patients while also caring for vulnerable populations within the community. To provide high-quality care, APRNs must utilize a multi-faceted approach that heeds ongoing updates to evidence-based practice.
... Risk for potentially traumatic events is heightened for first responders, medical professionals, and individuals whose loved ones become ill with the virus. Risk for victimization may also be heightened for individuals sheltering at 顺心彩票 with an abusive partner (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). During this time of potential increases in stress and trauma, some people may turn to substances to cope. ...
... Smoking or vaping cannabis or tobacco can also compromise the respiratory system, potentially increasing susceptibility to COVID-19 and worsening respiratory symptoms for individuals infected (Liu et al., 2020;Volkow, 2020). Substance use can also exacerbate mental health problems and inter-fere with recovery from traumatic events (Boden & Fergusson, 2011;Kaysen et al., 2011). ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma-exposed individuals may have heightened risk for substance use. Using substances to cope may contribute to the development of problematic substance use over time. It is imperative to initiate conversations about substance use with clients during this time and motivational interviewing offers an ideal framework for doing so. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... [5] Though globally, data is yet to emerge in a systematized manner, the gender based violence trends are increasing in United Kingdom National Domestic Abuse Helpline. [6] Similar rise has also been seen in other countries heavily affected like Spain, Italy and China. [7] It is vital to remember that persistent domestic abuse can have detrimental psycho-social and physical consequences and it has already been deemed as a 'social evil' that is tough to identify and tackle. ...
... The social and self-stigma related to disclosure and normalization by the families further lead to under-reporting. 6. Difficulty in managing family: With many members living under the same roof, women tend to manage the chores of not just the household but also of the aspects of childcare, but due to the traditional structures, role strain and role allocation may not adequately managed thereby causing difficulty in the form of aggression and concern. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Beyond just the public health perspective, such pandemics can cause immense psycho-social implications, that long outlast the infection itself. The stress as well as lockdown and social distancing as measures to control the outbreak, has led to change in living structures and behavioral responses. The already prevalent 'social evil' of domestic violence has increased globally, more so in India, a country already burdened with gender inequality. This can range from physical violence to sexual, psychological and financial abuse which gets further compounded by under-reporting, lack of awareness, stigma, societal apathy and patriarchal belief systems. Victims of abuse, especially under the present pandemic crisis can have both acute and chronic harmful psycho-social consequences. Keeping this in background, this commentary glances at the problem statement of domestic violence during COVID-19 crisis, the social contributors to the same and role of mental health education as a unique tool to prevent and mitigate this 'social evil'.
... A nivel mundial se ha observado un aumento generalizado en los reportes de violencia doméstica. 48 El confinamiento está ocurriendo en un contexto de temor, incertidumbre y duelo, generándose así graves problemas de salud mental. Las personas con diagnóstico de depresión, ansiedad, abuso de sustancias u otros trastornos requieren de atención médica continua y se encuentran en mayor riesgo de complicaciones. ...
Article
Full-text available
El Covid-19 representa uno de los retos más grandes en la historia reciente de la salud pública. Es fundamental que se fortalezcan los lazos de cooperación científica bajo un obje-tivo común: proteger la salud de la población. En este artículo se presentan ideas que necesitan un desarrollo urgente y colaborativo. Se discute la estimación de la magnitud de la epidemia mediante un panel nacional de seroprevalencia y nuevas estrategias para mejorar el monitoreo en tiempo real de la epidemia. También se analizan las externalidades nega-tivas asociadas con la respuesta a la pandemia. Finalmente, se presenta un marco general para el desarrollo de ideas para salir del confinamiento, resaltando la importancia de implementar acciones estructurales, sostenibles y equitativas. Se hace un llamado a la solidaridad y la cooperación, donde nuestros esfuerzos y creatividad se dediquen a la resolución de los problemas que enfrentan México y el mundo.
... There has been emerging evidence of further secondary morbidity associated with the pandemic with an in increase in domestic violence associated with the strategies implemented to slow its spread, namely social isolation and lockdown. 2 There is a known increased risk of domestic violence J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f in pregnancy 3 . We sought to assess the effects of lockdown on relationships and maternal mood. ...
... [22] The growth of domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic will likely follow historical patterns of previous epidemic/pandemic catastrophes; more stressors, more violence. [23] During these times of pandemic and quarantine, women are on the frontline of family care and frequently sail into harm's way. [24] What is particularly troubling is that 33% of women who have been in any relationship have experienced sexual or physical violence from an intimate partner, [25] and in humanitarian and emergency situations, this is compounded. ...
... Women and children are particularly vulnerable as they face increased abuse risk (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). Disruption of therapies, service provision and social supports will result in exacerbation or re- ...
Article
Full-text available
We consider how the prolonged, complex and uncertain aftermath of the COVID‐19 crisis will present challenges and opportunities for counselling and psychotherapy. Increased mental strain on populations, individuals and professionals is likely to be compounded by further constraints in therapeutic resources. Nevertheless, emerging needs and priorities will offer ground for systems thinking in linking the application of a range of therapeutic frameworks, theories to address global challenges, integration of counselling and psychotherapy into new sectors, service models for the most vulnerable, use of digital approaches, support mechanisms for professionals and interdisciplinary research.
... This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved weight gain in the community (Simonnet et al. 2020;Zachary et al. 2020), reduced use of health services for routine and acute care (Lazzerini et al. 2020), and concerns around increasing danger for people living with domestic violence and abuse (Bradbury-Jones & Isham 2020;Usher, Bhullar, Durkin, Gyamfi & Jackson 2020). So clearly, there have been some behavioural changes, but what is unclear is the nature of behaviour change that occurs in a pandemic and the psychological outcomes and mental health implications of these changes. ...
Article
COVID‐19 spread rapidly causing widescale loss of life and economic devastation. Efforts to contain it have resulted in measures such as closing of borders and restrictions around travel, social activities and attending places of worship. We conducted this rapid review to systematically examine, synthesise and critically appraise the available evidence on the relationship between pandemic‐related behaviours and psychological outcomes. The methods were compliant with the PRISMA guidelines. The review was preregistered with PROSPERO (Registration #: CRD42020181576). A literature search was conducted from January 2010‐April 2020 using ProQuest, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, SAGE Journals and CINAHL. Of 3844 articles identified, we included 11 quantitative articles in the final synthesis, representing data from 32,049 individual respondents from eight countries. We identified three pandemics (COVID‐19, MERS‐CoV, Influenza A(H1N1) pdm09) as well as several psychological outcomes including anxiety, mental distress, post‐traumatic stress disorder, and anger. We also identified several behaviours during pandemics and categorised them into protective, preparedness, and perverse behaviours. The review showed that even though there is limited evidence regarding pandemic‐related behaviours and psychological outcomes, the current findings showed that the psychological outcomes significantly impacted on the adoption of the pandemic‐related behaviours. Given the negative effects of psychological outcomes on behaviours, we recommend that mental health professionals should promote mental health support to people exhibiting psychological distress resulting from similar events in the future. Also, we recommend that future research should test the hypothesised effects of pandemics and psychological outcomes on behaviour change.
... There has been a surge in calls were received in 11 days of initiating a helpline for reporting domestic violence in Mumbai and Paris reported a rise in domestic violence cases by 36% during the lockdown phase. [17] Along with incidences of domestic violence, incidences of child sexual abuse, sexual and emotional abuse with or without physical abuse have seen a spike for women and children. Unfortunately, accessing protection and help becomes more challenging in such times; and even more for children in case the perpetrator may be from 顺心彩票. ...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 coronavirus pandemic started in December and has now spread worldwide. This pandemic has huge mental health implications with immense psychological morbidity among the common man, patients with preexisting psychiatric diagnoses causing many relapses and exacerbations after it has ensued. Many guidelines have been put forward by various agencies to address the issue of combating mental health challenges that have arisen as a result of this pandemic. This review paper looks at the role of psychiatry and psychiatrists and the mental health challenges faced by us during this pandemic. The role of mental health interventions, the issues faced and the emerging role of telepsychiatry with its ethical and clinical dilemmas are discussed.
... What are immediately and unavoidably apparent though are the collateral unintended consequences of the lockdown which have strong ethical and rights-related underpinnings. The most horrifying impact of the lockdown has been a rise in domestic and intimate partner violence, consistent with trends in other countries across the world (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020;Gupta & Stah, 2020;Roy, 2020). With workplaces shut and families spending almost all of their waking hours together, sometimes in very close quarters, women in abusive situations have no respite. ...
Article
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as with other countries across the world, the Central and State Governments of India initiated several measures to slow down the spread of the virus and to ‘flatten the curve’. One such measure was a ‘total lockdown’ for several weeks across the country. A complex and unexpected outcome of the lockdown which has medical, ethical, economic, and social dimensions is related to alcohol consumption. The lockdown and consequent acute non-availability of alcohol resulted in people with alcohol dependence going into withdrawals, black marketing of alcohol, and in extreme cases suicide resulting from the alleged frustration of not having access to alcohol. The health dilemmas around this situation are biological (e.g. pushing people into risky situations-potentially fatal alcohol withdrawal, consumption of illicit or other non-consumable alcohol) and psychosocial (e.g. isolation increasing the risk of relapses, loss of control over the decision to abstain which can be detrimental to recovery, restriction of access to services for alcohol problems). The legal and rights-related dilemmas are centred around whether States have the right to impinge on individual autonomy on the grounds of public health, the capacity of the health systems to provide appropriate services to cope with those who will struggle with the unavailability of alcohol, the constitutionality of the Central government's impinging on jurisdiction of states under the guise of a health emergency caused by the pandemic, and the ability of the State to make unbiased decisions about this issue when it is highly dependent on the revenue from the sale of alcohol and associated industries. The way forward could be a pragmatic and utilitarian approach involving continued access to alcohol, while observing all physical distancing norms necessary during the pandemic, for those who want to continue drinking; and implementing innovative measures such as tele-counselling for those who wish not to return back to drinking.
... In fact, although it seems that quarantine is the optimal solution (at least from a medical perspective), the social and economic consequences are enormous, leading to the emergence of negative outcomes. These include indirect loss of lives due to suicides (2) and delayed chronic treatment (3) as well as increased mental diseases (4) and domestic violence (5). ...
... Поступали сообщения об убийствах, связанных с насилием в семье, в нескольких странах (Bradbury-Jones & Isham 2020). [103] С тех пор, как были приняты меры по борьбе с домашним насилием, количество звонков на национальную горячую линию Великобритании увеличилось на 25% (Kelly & Morgan 2020). [104] Из-за изоляции дети подвергаются большему риску безнадзорности, а также физическому, эмоциональному, сексуальному и бытовому насилию (Национальное общество по предупреждению жестокого обращения с детьми [NSPCC] 2020). ...
Preprint
Целевое социальное дистанцирование может быть эффективным способом снижения заболеваемости и смертности, но может непреднамеренно усилить стигму среди пострадавшего населения. Как поставщики медицинских услуг, мы должны осознавать возможность стигматизации населения, затронутого COVID-2019, а также потенциальные психологические последствия длительного карантина не только для населения в целом, но и для работников здравоохранения.
... However, studies revealed that during this time, there is an upsurge in domestic violence cases (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020), lack of personal space in the family and boredom (Wang et al., 2020). Home-makers might be burdened by shortage of supplies and the sudden need to care for the entire family. ...
Article
Full-text available
The lockdown imposed by the governments of various countries to contain the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with various psychosocial problems. The complications within the family and time management issues that can occur during this time period are explored. The stigma and anxiety associated with the coronavirus disease are also addressed. It is noted that the problems faced by vulnerable communities including individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) tend to be ignored. These crucial areas that psychologists and mental health professionals should consider before providing intervention are discussed.
... Internationally, telephone calls to domestic violence helplines have reportedly increased. 2 Orbital trauma with diplopia can severely impact on patients' activities of daily living, for instance driving, cooking, reading, and work. 3 It is important to correct this diplopia so that patients can continue to support themselves and their families without becoming reliant on others which could potentially increase the spread of COVID-19. ...
... Reports from China unveiled that the most common psychological and behavioral problems among children and adolescents were clinginess, distraction, irritability, and fear of asking questions about the epidemic (32). It is also important to note that the social isolation and the exhortation to 'stay at 顺心彩票' has major implications for those children already living in the same household with someone who is abusive; unfortunately, domestic violence rates are rising fast (33). ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health emergency resulting in unprecedented individual and societal fear and anxiety. The stress surrounding this biothreat appears to have clinical implications in all aspects of medicine, both in mental and physical health spheres. The impact of COVID-19 related anxiety in Cardiology, Paediatrics, Oncology, Dermatology, Neurology and Mental Health and how it affects treatments is discussed. Moreover, the need for introducing novel communication and therapeutic approaches is highlighted in the new landscape of the COVID-19 era.
... The invisible health threat, the lack of personal space, the onerous cleaning and the sheer fact of having more individuals in a tight, enclosed space constitute a fertile breeding ground for conflicts. A surge in cases of domestic violence against women and children has been reported in a number of countries (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). Social workers' role in supporting distressed families through practical advices (e.g., handling problem behaviours of elderly persons with cognitive impairment, consoling children with special education needs, logistics about medical consultation for persons with a chronic illness), mediating family disputes and inoculating families with mental resilience are indispensable. ...
Article
At the beginning of the pandemic, the world has likened COVID-19 to SARS which devastated Hong Kong in 2003. Based on the results of a survey conducted between March and April 2020 with 761 Hong Kong adult residents, we summarised three lessons on the coping of Hong Kong people: (i) Establish adequate personal vigilance, (ii) Brace for a mental health crisis and (iii) Find strengths in social and community support. Social workers’ roles in health education, identifying service gaps, resource mapping and orchestrating community actions are vital for empowering flexible and adaptive community responses.
... Although it will not be possible to develop an empirically driven understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on IPV frequency and severity until the pandemic is fully remediated, the media and other recent commentaries have already reported on the exacerbating effect of COVID-19 on IPV (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020;Campbell, 2020;World Health Organization, 2020). Some have suggested that reducing the penetrance of COVID-19 infections and the need for social distancing might mitigate IPV exacerbations (van Gelder et al., 2020). ...
Article
The emergence of COVID-19 presents unprecedented challenges in keeping individuals experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) safe in the United States and abroad. This commentary explores how COVID-19 may be increasing risk for IPV and what strategies may be used presently, and in the future, to mitigate IPV risk during crises. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... During the global quarantines required by COVID-19, family quarrels and domestic violence have increased (11,12). It seems natural to hypothesize these increases in domestic conflict may lead to increasing self-immolation rates among women, especially given the concurrent emotional, economic and mental health challenges they may be facing. ...
... Social distancing to "flatten the curve" thus impacts some routine activities known to condition criminal opportunities and guardianship (Cohen & Felson, 1979). Lifestyle alterations around contagion threats theoretically should have an impact on the volume and distribution of crime with domestic and family violence correlated with quarantine, economic stress, and increased exposure to harmful relationships during periods of limited support options, perhaps the most obvious crime threat of forced isolation (Usher et al., 2020;Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). Social distancing should also have an effect in reducing interpersonal violence other than perhaps domestic violence, sex offenses, illicit street markets, and intergang conflicts. ...
Article
Full-text available
The novel corona virus COVID-19 has become a worldwide public health pandemic that has induced anomic conditions impacting daily routines. COVID-19 response measures specifically alter regular schedules and both restrict and expand opportunities for various types of crime while presenting unprecedented challenges for the criminal justice system. For criminologists and criminal justice scientists, the virus also presents natural experiment conditions allowing for real-world theory tests and observation of the relative effectiveness of practice and policy options under weighty conditions. Toward synthesizing scientific discourse and forthcoming empirical work, we suggest the benefits of a COVID-19 crime and justice research program and offer some anchoring concepts. Contagion, containment measures (social distancing, facemasks, shelter-in-place, economic shutdown, virtual work and schooling, banned group gatherings), and social ordinance compliance (voluntary or enforced) posture a conceptual framework from which to align research on crime, justice, and victimization during the virus. After observing crime trends and justice system challenges, we suggest how the pandemic presents opportunities for review of various criminal justice, especially incarceration, policies. System change is a recurring theme across this special issue of the American Journal of Criminal Justice that features twenty additional contributions from a wide range of authoritative crime and justice scholars. These articles on traditional crime during the virus, virus specific hate crime and domestic violence, and the challenges posed by COVID-19 to law enforcement, the courts, and corrections will hopefully provide initial commentary toward deeper inquiry.
... To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, public health measures such as mandatory quarantine, shelter in place orders, work from 顺心彩票 rules, and the shutdown of services such as daycares, schools, libraries, and community centers, have been imposed. The "pandemic paradox" refers to how these public health measures, intended to keep children and families medically safe during the pandemic, put children living in families characterized by violence and maltreatment at increased risk (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). Indeed, experts hypothesize that economic strain (e.g., job loss) and increased psychological stress in children and caregivers Racine, Cooke et al., 2020), coupled with isolation from supports that can buffer families from COVID-19 risk, will likely lead to increased exposure to child maltreatment and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic ( (Humphreys, Myint, & Zeanah, 2020) Usher, Bhullar, Durkin, Gyamfi, & Jackson, 2020). ...
Article
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented disruptions and stress in the lives of children and families internationally. Heightened family stress and turmoil can increase risk for child maltreatment. As a result, child maltreatment experts are concerned that there will be an influx of children requiring trauma assessment and treatment during, and after COVID-19. As physical distancing measures have been implemented and will likely persist into 2021, organizations providing trauma treatment to children and their families have had to rapidly pivot to telemental health to maintain service delivery with clients. While the benefits of telemental health have been identified in the broader child mental health literature, including reduced barriers to access, increased cost effectiveness, and broad availability of services, there are unique limitations to its implementation within a child maltreatment population, such as challenges with attention and emotion regulation skills, difficulties identifying dissociative symptoms, and increased time with perpetrators of abuse due to shelter in place orders. These limitations are exacerbated for children and families who are most marginalized and facing the highest levels of social and economic barriers. Lack of access to reliable technology, lack of a private or confidential space for sessions, and reluctance to process trauma in the absence of a safe environment, are all barriers to conducting effective trauma treatment over telemental health. This article discusses both the benefits and barriers to telemental health in a child maltreatment population and offers considerations for child trauma service provision, program development, and policy during and post the COVID-19 pandemic.
... We expected to see a greater number of victims of IPV during the pandemic as IPV victims are quarantined with their abusers at 顺心彩票, which is considered to be the most dangerous environment for victims (8,(11)(12)(13). Socioeconomic instability related to stay at 顺心彩票 orders and business closures increased substance abuse, and lack of community support would be expected to further contribute to an increased occurrence of IPV. ...
Article
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global social and public health problem but published literature regarding the exacerbation of physical IPV during the COVID-19 pandemic is lacking. Purpose To assess the incidence, patterns, and severity of injuries in victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, compared with the prior three years. Materials and Methods The demographics, clinical presentation, injuries, and radiological findings of patients reporting physical abuse arising from IPV during the statewide COVID-19 pandemic between March 11th and May 3rd, 2020 were compared with the same period over the past three years. Pearson's chi-squared and Fischer's exact have been used for analysis. Results 26 physical IPV victims from 2020 (37+/-13 years, 25 women) were evaluated and compared with 42 physical IPV victims (41+/-15 years, 40 women) from 2017-2019. While the overall number of patients reporting IPV decreased during the pandemic, the incidence of physical IPV was 1.8 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 3.0, p = 0.01). The total number of deep injuries was 28 during 2020 versus 16 from 2017-2019; the number of deep injuries per victim was 1.1 during 2020 compared with 0.4 from 2017-2019 (p<0.001). The incidence of high-risk abuse defined by mechanism was greater by 2 times (95% CI 1.2 to 4.7, p = 0.01). Patients with IPV in during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to be ethnically white, 17 (65%) victims in 2020 were ethnically white compared to 11 (26%) in the prior years (p=0.007). Conclusion There was a higher incidence and severity of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during the COVID 19 pandemic compared with the prior three years. These results suggest that IPV victims delayed reaching out to health care services until the late stages of the abuse cycle during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Domestic Violence Furthermore, increase in domestic violence incidents was reported as a result of the COVID-19-related lockdown, as shown in the comments below. Evidence already confirms the link between COVID-19 and the rising cases of domestic violence globally[101][102][103][104][105]."Cases of domestic violence in the USA has skyrocketed since the CoronaVirus forced couples to stay 顺心彩票 together for 14 days or more." [C9900]"While domestic violence across France increased by 32% in one week, in Paris it rose by as much as 36%." [C13720]"What worries me more than the coronavirus, is the safety and welfare of those stuck at 顺心彩票 with their abusers, the children witnessing domestic violence and the lonely relying on company. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global health crisis that affects many aspects of human lives. In the absence of vaccines and antivirals, several behavioural change and policy initiatives, such as physical distancing, have been implemented to control the spread of the coronavirus. Social media data can reveal public perceptions toward how governments and health agencies across the globe are handling the pandemic, as well as the impact of the disease on people regardless of their geographic locations in line with various factors that hinder or facilitate the efforts to control the spread of the pandemic globally. This paper aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people globally using social media data. We apply natural language processing (NLP) and thematic analysis to understand public opinions, experiences, and issues with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic using social media data. First, we collect over 47 million COVID-19-related comments from Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and three online discussion forums. Second, we perform data preprocessing which involves applying NLP techniques to clean and prepare the data for automated theme extraction. Third, we apply context-aware NLP approach to extract meaningful keyphrases or themes from over 1 million randomly selected comments, as well as compute sentiment scores for each theme and assign sentiment polarity based on the scores using lexicon-based technique. Fourth, we categorize related themes into broader themes. A total of 34 negative themes emerged, out of which 15 are health-related issues, psychosocial issues, and social issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic from the public perspective. In addition, 20 positive themes emerged from our results. Finally, we recommend interventions that can help address the negative issues based on the positive themes and other remedial ideas rooted in research.
... Having a family member infected with COVID-19 is related to higher anxiety (Cao et al., 2020). Additionally, being an informal (e.g., parent) or formal (e.g., healthcare worker) caregiver, or a victim of domestic violence, are strong risk factors for adverse mental health outcomes during lockdown (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020;Pappa et al., 2020;Razai et al., 2020;Vindegaard & Benros, 2020). Lastly, an Italian study found that lower self-discipline and perceptions of the lockdown measures as a limitation on personal freedom, were related to higher stress and a greater likelihood of violating governmental social isolation rules (Flesia, Fietta, Colicino, Segatto, & Monaro, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Moderating Roles of Psychological Flexibility and Inflexibility on the Mental Health Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown in Italy. Preliminary data suggest the COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on mental health in approximately a quarter of the general population. Few prior studies have identified contextual risk factors and no published study has explored factors that might moderate their adverse effects on mental health. Psychological flexibility is the cornerstone of psychological health and resiliency. This study investigated the roles of psychological flexibility and inflexibility in moderating the effects of COVID-19 risk factors on three mental health outcomes: COVID-19 peritraumatic distress, anxiety, depression. We hypothesized that psychological flexibility would mitigate and psychological inflexibility would exacerbate the adverse effects of COVID-19 risk factors on mental health. During the Italian national lockdown (M=39.29 days, SD=11.26), 1,035 adults (79% female, M=37.5 years, SD=12.3) completed an online survey. Twelve COVID-19 risk factors were identified (e.g. lockdown duration, family infected by COVID-19, increase in domestic violence and in unhealthy lifestyle behaviours) and constituted a COVID-19 Lockdown Index. As predicted, results showed that after controlling for sociodemographic variables, global psychological flexibility and four of its sub-processes (self-as context, defusion, values, committed action), mitigated the detrimental impacts of COVID-19 risk factors on mental health. In contrast and as expected, global psychological inflexibility and four of its sub-processes (lack of contact with present moment, fusion, self-as-content, lack of contact with personal values) exacerbated the detrimental impacts of COVID-19 risk factors on mental health. Findings converge with those from the broader psychological flexibility literature providing robust support for the use of ACT-based interventions to promote psychological flexibility and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Given the changes to playwork practice since the outbreak of COVID-19, it is quite predictable that there will be a number of possible physical and practical long-term consequences of this pandemic on playwork; such as additional risk assessments on logistics for social distancing, self-care and hygiene, restrictions on the numbers allowed for play sessions and the sharing of physical resources between children. There may also be potential safeguarding issues arising from long-term selfisolation, with domestic violence and child protection incidences on the rise (Bradbury-Jones, 2020: Usher et al., 2020. Subsequently, there are likely implications for direct play; with the restrictions on messy play or/and sensory play, discussions and role-play about COVID-19, play processes and a promotion of remote wellbeing learning/activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the child’s need for play especially at the time of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in terms of the child’s welfare and rights, playfulness and their wellbeing. It reflects on previously learnt lessons with regards to virus outbreaks and the production of activity packs as a means of playwork in the pandemic context. Howard, Freya H. (2020) "What do children need from playwork in the time of COVID-19? A reflection on playwork practice in a pandemic.," International Journal of Playwork Practice: Vol. 1 : Iss. 1 , Article 6. Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/ijpp/vol1/iss1/6
... Women, in particular, are likely to carry a greater social burden and greater responsibility for childcare during COVID-19. 1,92 Critically, domestic abuse has increased during the COVID-19 lockdown, 10 which has also been shown to contribute to chronic pain. 2,60 1.3. ...
... China has reported rising divorce rates following stay-at-顺心彩票 orders (Landsverk, 2020), suggesting time together in isolation may exacerbate pre-existing issues or create new problems. Reports of domestic and sexual violence are also on the rise (Bradbury-Jones & Isham, 2020). Family violence is known to increase during times when access to others (e.g., teachers, friends), who might notice signs of abuse or help victims access services, is limited (Boutilier, Jadidzadeh, Esina, Wells, & Kneebone, 2017). ...
The COVID‐19 pandemic brings to light many areas the field of counselling and psychotherapy may need to address in future research. We outline several issues stemming from or exacerbated by the pandemic and offer suggestions for future research to address the mental health needs of those impacted. Our suggestions focus on five domains: (a) the health and well‐being of helping professionals, (b) the infodemic, (c) discrimination and minority stress, (d) spiritual and existential dynamics in mental health and (e) couple and family stress and resilience. We aim to provide a multi‐systemic perspective of mental health and well‐being in the time of COVID‐19, as well as encourage current and future studies to incorporate these suggestions to advance the health and well‐being of our communities through evidence‐based treatment approaches.
... 3 There has been international recognition of the unintended negative consequences of the COVID-19 global pandemic management measures, including a spike in DVA along with psychological health risks, loneliness, school closure, economic vulnerability and job losses. 4,5,6,7,8 DVA is described as a pattern of behaviour involving violence or other abuse by one person against another in a marriage, cohabitation or between family members. 9 An estimated 2.0 million UK adults aged 16 to 59 years experienced domestic abuse in the year ending March 2018, equating to a prevalence rate of approximately 6 in 100 adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
Household isolation measures to reduce coronavirus transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in increased risk of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). DVA physical injury most frequently involves the face. Dentists, dental care professionals, oral surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons all have a critical part to play in identifying patients experiencing DVA, who present with dental and facial injury, and in making referrals to specialist agencies. This paper describes how to ask questions about DVA sensitively and how to make an appropriate referral. Early intervention and referral to a DVA advocate can prevent an abusive situation becoming worse with more intense violence. It can save lives.
... The burden of unintended consequences will be disproportionately borne by some of the most vulnerable groups in society and, unfortunately, many necessary outbreak control measures will further amplify existing health disparities [246]. The incidence of domestic violence is expected to increase during the pandemic with families forced to live, work and learn in close quarters alongside additional stressors related to loss of employment and income [247][248][249]. School closures have resulted in food insecurity for children who depend on school breakfasts and lunches for their nutrition. ...
Article
Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)—229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43—circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic origin have emerged during the past two decades: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These novel coronaviruses are known to cause severe illness and death predominantly in older adults and those with underlying comorbidities. Consistent with what has been observed during the outbreaks of SARS and MERS, children with COVID-19 are more likely to be asymptomatic or to have mild-to-moderate illness, with few deaths reported in children globally thus far. Clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiological abnormalities in children have been similar to those reported in adults but are generally less severe. A rare multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) which has resulted in critical illness and some deaths has recently been described. Clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccine development should include paediatric considerations. Children may play an important role in the transmission of infection and outbreak dynamics and could be a key target population for effective measures to control outbreaks. The unintended consequences of the unprecedented scale and duration of pandemic control measures for children and families around the world should be carefully examined. Abbreviations 2019-nCoV, 2019 novel coronavirus; ADEM, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACE-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; BCG, bacillus Calmette–Guérin; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; CT, computed tomography; CXR, chest X-ray; DOL, day of life; hCoV, human coronavirus; ICU, intensive care unit; IL, interleukin; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; KD, Kawasaki disease; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MEURI, monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions; MIS-C, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PICU, paediatric intensive care unit; RNA, ribonucleic acid; RCT, randomised-controlled trial; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; TNF-alpha, tumour necrosis factor alpha; UK United Kingdom; UNICEF, United Nations Children’s Fund; USA, United States of America; WHO, World Health Organization
... Le logement n'est pas toujours le lieu le plus s?r pour les enfants, cela peut être le lieu où s'exercent les violences intrafamiliales. Dans son éditorial, Caroline Bradbury-Jones donne les chiffres en forte hausse des appels aux lignes d'aide à distance dans différents pays européens [61]. C'est également le cas en France où Adrien Taquet, secrétaire d'état chargé de la protection de l'enfance, a rapporté une forte augmentation des appels au 119 depuis le début du confinement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccination against influenza is recommended during the vaccination period in pregnant women regardless of trimester. In contrast, administration of live vaccines, such as the vaccine against varicella, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) is contraindicated in pregnant women. Vaccinations against hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A can be made as indicated. Vaccination against yellow fever may be considered in pregnant women travelling to endemic countries. In post-partum period, live vaccines may be administered if necessary, especially vaccination against whooping cough for women not to date with their vaccinations. Vaccination against yellow fever is contraindicated in case of breast feeding. Prevention of pertussis in newborns is based in France on vaccination of the mothers in the post-partum period, and the close contacts of the newborn during the pregnancy (“cocooning”).
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic, and its attendant responses, has led to massive health, social, and economic challenges on a global scale. While, so far, having a relatively low burden of COVID-19 infection, it is the response in lower- and middle- income countries that has had particularly dire consequences for impoverished populations such as sex workers, many of whom rely on regular income in the informal economic sector to survive. This commentary captures the challenges in Kenya posed by daily curfews and lost economic income, coupled with further changes to sex work that increase potential exposure to infection, stigmatisation, violence, and various health concerns. It also highlights the ways in which communities and programmes have demonstrated resourcefulness in responding to this unprecedented disruption in order to emerge healthy when COVID-19, and the measures to contain it, subside.
Preprint
Full-text available
Il rischio di suicidio in gravidanza e nel primo anno dopo il parto è un evento raro; ciò nonostante, la morte per suicidio in gravidanza e nel post-partum rappresenta una delle principali cause di morte materna. In Italia, è stata stimata essere pari a 2,3 donne per 100.000 nati vivi; un tasso ben più elevato di quello relativo, ad esempio, all'emorragia ostetrica (1,92 donne per 100.000 nati vivi), una delle principali cause di mortalità materna (Marzuk et al., 1997; Lega et al 2019). Il periodo più a rischio di suicidio è quello che va dall'ultimo trimestre di gravidanza ai primi mesi dopo il parto (Knasmuller et al. 2019; Esscheret al., 2016; Oates 2003a). Il suicidio è un fenomeno complesso e multifattoriale influenzato da numerosi fattori genetici, psicologici, sociali e culturali. I principali fattori associati al rischio suicidario nel periodo della gravidanza e post-partum sono:-la gravidanza non desiderata o un precedente aborto, soprattutto tra le giovani e giovanissime, e il decesso di un figlio (Marzuk et al, 1997; Lega et al. 2019);-la gravidanza in età molto giovane (Appleby 1991; Lega et al 2019);-l'aver avuto complicazioni ostetriche e neonatali (Ayre et al.2020);-un disturbo psichiatrico già presente o insorto dopo la gravidanza (in particolare disturbo depressivo, disturbo bipolare e psicosi puerperale) ma anche il consumodi alcol, tabacco e di sostanze stupefacenti (Appleby, 1991; Gausia et al. 2009; Anniverno et al, 2015; Ayre et al.2020);-l'avere attuato un precedente tentativo di suicidio (Lindahl et al. 2005);-l'aver avuto un suicidio in famiglia (Tabb et al, 2013);-la separazione della donna dal suo bambino/a (Oates 2003(b); Anniverno et al 2015);-la mancanza di una rete sociale di supporto (Appleby 1991);-l'aver subito abusi nell'infanzia (Zang et al. 2020);-l'aver subito e/o subire violenza da parte del partner (Palladio et al, 2011; Rahmani et al., 2019);-la perdita del lavoro (Gavin AR et al., 2011; Anniverno et al., 2015). Le donne che si tolgono la vita (o tentano di farlo) nel periodo della gravidanza, del post-partum e del puerperio utilizzano più frequentemente metodi "violenti" più letali, rispetto alla popolazione femminile generale, indicequesto di un'elevata intenzionalità del gesto (Lega et al. 2019; Oates2003; Lindahl et al 2005; Austin et al 2007). Numerosi studi condotti in alcuni Paesi meno industrializzati riportano un maggior rischio di suicidio nel periodo della gravidanza e del post-partum tra le donne non sposate e con bassa scolarità (Fauveau e Blanchet 1989; Tavareset al.,2012). Questi risultati possono far ipotizzare, anche nei paesi più industrializzati, un rischio maggiore tra le donne appartenenti ad alcuni gruppi etnici e ceti sociali più svantaggiati.
Article
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global pandemic and many have been victims of it long before Covid-19. International organizations have documented an increase in IPV reports during the current pandemic, raising awareness of the potential causes for such an increase. Reflecting on risk factors associated with IPV, and the underlying need of the perpetrators to exert control over the victims, it becomes increasingly important to understand how the current policies of social distancing, self-isolation, and lockdown can precipitate episodes of IPV. Furthermore, access to specialized services and health care can be compromised, and health care professionals face new challenges and demands imposed by the pandemic while managing IPV cases. This article begins by examining the main risk factors more commonly associated with IPV in the literature. It proceeds by reflecting on how these risk factors may be exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic, which can explain the increased number of reports. Finally, it emphasizes the new challenges faced by health care professionals, while assisting IPV victims during the pandemic and provides possible recommendations on actions to implement during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic to prevent such cases.
Article
Full-text available
In late 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei province of China. COVID-19 rapidly spread and led to an outbreak in China and then became a global health emergency. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19), showed high transmission capacity and morbidity. In this way, WHO suggests that the most efficient method for controlling transmission is social isolation/quarantine to the population. Human and Swiss Webster Outbred stock, in both species we can define a distress intersection point: abrupt break in routine and compromise in social relationships. For this reason, we can observe in the Swiss Webster ethology various behavioral disturbances, such as family violence and aggression exacerbated. In this review, we hope, through comparative behavioral analysis, to avoid, mitigate and alleviate social stress in humans, mainly through procedures for raising animal welfare. In conclusion, we believed that our knowledge of Mouse Lab ethology can be useful, since, by minimizing stress, the most rudimentary emotions, similar between humans and mice, but concient-rationalized in the human and promote the improvement of the human being's elevated quality of life, even in social isolation/quarantine.
Article
The novel coronavirus pandemic (hereafter COVID-19) is likely to have unprecedented impacts on the incidence and impacts of crime and violence globally. This includes impacts to the risk, consequences, and decision-making of women experiencing violence by an intimate partner (hereafter IPV). Most importantly, the COVID-19 pandemic, and its impact on the risk of IPV is likely to differentially impact vulnerable populations, including minority women and those with long histories of victimization and mental health issues. This review paper explores the potential short- and long-term implications of COVID-19 on the risk of IPV, highlighting some of the most recent preliminary data. The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, record levels of male unemployment, added stressors in the 顺心彩票, including the care and 顺心彩票 schooling of children, and the social distancing measures required by the epidemiological response, may serve to undermine the decades of progress made in keeping women and children safe at 顺心彩票. Victim police reporting, help-seeking decisions, and social service utilization during the pandemic are likely to be impacted by stay-at-顺心彩票 orders and social distancing requirements. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for providing safety planning and self-care for victims and their children.
Article
The COVID-19 global pandemic has generated an abundance of research quickly following the outbreak. Within only a few months, more than a thousand studies on this topic have already appeared in the scientific literature. In this short review, we analyse the bibliometric aspects of these studies on a macro level, as well as those addressing Coronaviruses in general. Furthermore, through a scoping analysis of the literature on COVID-19, we identify the main safety-related dimensions that these studies have thus far addressed. Our findings show that across various research domains, and apart from the medical and clinical aspects such as the safety of vaccines and treatments, issues related to patient transport safety, occupational safety of healthcare professionals, biosafety of laboratories and facilities, social safety, food safety, and particularly mental/psychological health and domestic safety have thus far attracted most attention of the scientific community in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis also uncovers various potentially significant safety problems caused by this global health emergency which currently have attracted only limited scientific focus but may warrant more attention. These include matters such as cyber safety, economic safety, and supply-chain safety. These findings highlight why, from an academic research perspective, a holistic interdisciplinary approach and a collective scientific effort is required to help understand and mitigate the various safety impacts of this crisis whose implications reach far beyond the bio-medical risks. Such holistic safety-scientific understanding of the COVID-19 crisis can furthermore be instrumental to be better prepared for a future pandemic.
Chapter
Full-text available
La pandemia y sus efectos devastadores sobre el comercio y la actividad productiva mundial han puesto en la balanza una revaloración de los méritos y fallas del Mercado y del Estado. Los retos que este choque adverso tienen un magnitud inédita y para atenderlos el Estado ocupa el rol principal, tanto por legitimidad en cuanto a las decisiones a tomar para el curso de desarrollo como de los instrumentos y recursos que hay que movilizar. En ese empe?o, la política macro debe redise?arse para atenderlos en tiempo y forma. En el caso mexicano urge una nueva política fiscal y social, ajena a la Austeridad, mal llamada Republicana, que aplica el gobierno actual con su caracter pro-cíclico tiende a profundizar y prolongar la recesión, deteriorar más el empleo y a agudizar la pobreza y la desigualdad
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 global pandemic has generated an abundance of research quickly following the outbreak. Within only a few months, more than a thousand studies on this topic have already appeared in the scientific literature. In this short review, we analyse the bibliometric aspects of these studies on a macro level, as well as those addressing Coronaviruses in general. Furthermore, through a scoping analysis of the literature on COVID-19, we identify the main safety-related dimensions that these studies have thus far addressed. Our findings show that across various research domains, and apart from the medical and clinical aspects such as the safety of vaccines and treatments, issues related to patient transport safety, occupational safety of healthcare professionals, biosafety of laboratories and facilities, social safety, food safety, and particularly mental/psychological health and domestic safety have thus far attracted most attention of the scientific community in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis also uncovers various potentially significant safety problems caused by this global health emergency which currently have attracted only limited scientific focus but may warrant more attention. These include matters such as cyber safety, economic safety, and supply-chain safety. These findings highlight why, from an academic research perspective, a holistic interdisciplinary approach and a collective scientific effort is required to help understand and mitigate the various safety impacts of this crisis whose implications reach far beyond the bio-medical risks. Such holistic safety-scientific understanding of the COVID-19 crisis can furthermore be instrumental to be better prepared for a future pandemic.
Article
Family violence refers to threatening or other violent behaviour within families that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or economic, and can include child abuse and intimate partner violence (Peterman et al. 2020, van Gelder et al. 2020). Family violence during pandemics is associated with a range of factors including economic stress, disaster‐related instability, increased exposure to exploitative relationships, and reduced options for support (Peterman et al. 2020). Due to the social isolation measures implemented across the globe to help reduce the spread of COVID‐19, people living in volatile situations of family violence are restricted to their 顺心彩票s. Social isolation exacerbates personal and collective vulnerabilities while limiting accessible and familiar support options (van Gelder et al. 2020). In many countries, including Australia, we have already seen an increase in demand for domestic violence services and reports of increased risk for children not attending schools (Duncan, 2020); a pattern similar to previous episodes of social isolation associated with epidemics and pandemics (Boddy, Young & O'Leary 2020).
Preprint
Full-text available
There is an immediate global need to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, both in order to manage the ongoing pandemic and to assist with a phased transition to more normal societal conditions. We performed a solution scan to identify societal options for reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and spread. We read the literature, consulted experts in different fields, crowd-sourced options using social media, and collated comments on a preprint. Here, we present our current list of 313 possible measures. This list will help individuals, businesses and policy-makers consider a wide range of options to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and spread when designing biosecurity plans. We have developed an online application to help with the initial steps in this process. We encourage testing actions and documenting outcomes, reviewing of the current list, and addition of further options.
Article
Purpose: We intend to identify the links between Covid-19 and domestic violence, expose the potential reasons behind an increase in domestic violence cases due to Covid-19, and argue that rising incidence of domestic violence may lead to economic and social crisis. Method: This is a brief note in which authors rely on various statistics and insights regarding domestic violence since the detection of Covid-19. Based on the available statistics regarding domestic violence prevalence during previous times of uncertainty, the number and nature of domestic violence incidents around the globe, and existing literature, the authors argue that clear links exist between Covid-19 and domestic violence, which also impacts on the economic and social crisis. Results: Countries across the world are battling Covid-19 by enacting measures to reduce the speed of transmission. Multiple reports, however, suggest that such measures are increasing the incidence of domestic violence and not only in number but also in severity. We find that layoffs, loss of income, extended domestic stays, and exposure to habits due to stay-at-顺心彩票 orders are driving up the incidence of domestic violence. Moreover, these domestic violence increases are driving economic and social crises due to the form and severity of the violence, the burden placed on government, a crisis of resources, and decreases in the productivity of workforces. Conclusion: Domestic violence increase resulting from Covid-19 is an indirect driver of economic and social crisis. This brief note proposes certain policy changes and strategies required to reduce domestic violence incidence during this turbulent time.
Coronavirus: Domestic Abuse Calls up 25% Since Lockdown, Charity Says
BBC (2020) Coronavirus: Domestic Abuse Calls up 25% Since Lockdown, Charity Says. Available: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-52157620
What to do if you Need Urgent Police Help Through the 999 顺心彩票, But Can't Speak
  • Ingala Smith
Ingala Smith, K. (2020) Counting Dead Women. Available: https://kareningalasmith.com/ Independent Office for Police Conduct (2019) What to do if you Need Urgent Police Help Through the 999 顺心彩票, But Can't Speak. Available: https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Documents/researchlearning/Silent_solution_guide.pdf
Coronavirus (COVID-19): Support for Victims of Domestic Abuse
  • The Guardian
The Guardian. (2020). Lockdowns around the world bring rise in domestic violence. Available at https://www.thegu ardian.com/ socie ty/2020/mar/28/lockd owns-world -rise-domes tic-viole nce?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other UK Home Office. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Support for Victims of Domestic Abuse. Available at https://www.gov.uk/gover nment /publi catio ns/coron aviru s-COVID -19-and-domes tic-abuse /coron aviru s-COVID -19-suppo rt-for-victi ms-of-domes tic-abuse
Article
Full-text available
In the unparalleled and extraordinary public health emergency in which we find ourselves, across the world nurses stand as we always do – at the front line. Nurses everywhere are staffing our clinics, hospital wards and units – in some situations, literally working until they drop, and in some regions, they are doing so while dealing with a lack of essential items. Indeed, we see reports that nurses in many parts of the world are grappling with shortages of much needed supplies including personal protective equipment such as masks, gloves and gowns, yet are actively embracing the challenges presented by COVID‐19.